Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a pancreatic malignancy suffering from poor prognosis; the worst among all types of cancer. Chemotherapy, which is the standard regime for treatment in most cases, is often rendered useless as drug resistance quickly sets in after prolonged exposure to the drug. The implication of PAX2 transcription factor in regulating several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that are responsible for the acquisition of drug resistance in PDAC makes it a potential target for treatment purposes. In this study, the 3D structure of PAX2 protein was modelled, and the response of key amino acids to perturbation were identified. Subsequently, kappadione, a vitamin K derivative, was found to bind efficiently to PAX2 with a binding energy of -9.819 kcal/mol. The efficacy of mechanism and mode of binding was studied by docking the protein with DNA in the presence and absence of the drug. The presence of kappadione disrupted DNA binding with key effector resides, preventing the DNA from coming into contact with the binding region essential for protein translation. By occupying the DNA binding region and replacing it with a ligand, the mechanism by which DNA interacts with PAX2 could be manipulated. Inhibition of PAX2-DNA binding using kappadione and other small molecules can prove to be beneficial for combating chemoresistance in PDAC, as proposed through in silico approaches. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1742793
Background: Gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapeutic drug administered in advanced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, due to drug resistance in PDAC patients, this treatment has become less effective. Over the years, clinical trials for the quest of finding novel compounds that can be used in combination with gemcitabine have met very little success.
Objective: To predict the driving factors behind pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and to understand the effect of these components in the progression of the disease and their contribution to cell growth and proliferation.
Methods: With the help of systems biology approaches and using gene expression data, which is generally found in abundance, dysregulated elements in key signalling pathways were predicted. Prominent dysregulated elements were integrated into a model to simulate and study the effect of gemcitabine- induced hypoxia.
Results: In this study, several transcription factors in the form of key drivers of cancer-related genes were predicted with the help of CARNIVAL, and the effect of gemcitabine-induced hypoxia on the apoptosis pathway was shown to have an effect on the downstream elements of two primary pathway models; EGF/VEGF and TNF signalling pathway.
Conclusion: It was observed that EGF/VEGF signalling pathway played a major role in inducing drug resistance through cell growth, proliferation, and avoiding cell death. Targeting the major upstream components of this pathway could potentially lead to successful treatment.
Background: Even after decades of research, cancer, by and large, remains a challenge and is one of the major causes of death worldwide. For a very long time, it was believed that cancer is simply an outcome of changes at the genetic level but today, it has become a well-established fact that both genetics and epigenetics work together resulting in the transformation of normal cells to cancerous cells.
Objective: In the present scenario, researchers are focusing on targeting epigenetic machinery. The main advantage of targeting epigenetic mechanisms is their reversibility. Thus, cells can be reprogrammed to their normal state. Graph theory is a powerful gift of mathematics which allows us to understand complex networks.
Methodology: In this study, graph theory was utilized for quantitative analysis of the epigenetic network of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) and subsequently finding out the important vertices in the network thus obtained. Secondly, this network was utilized to locate novel targets for hepato-cellular carcinoma epigenetic therapy.
Results: The vertices represent the genes involved in the epigenetic mechanism of HCC. Topological parameters like clustering coefficient, eccentricity, degree, etc. have been evaluated for the assessment of the essentiality of the node in the epigenetic network.
Conclusion: The top ten novel epigenetic target genes involved in HCC reported in this study are cdk6, cdk4, cdkn2a, smad7, smad3, ccnd1, e2f1, sf3b1, ctnnb1, and tgfb1.
(2019)Exploration of interaction mechanism of tyrosol as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics,
Abstract: Drug discovery for a vigorous and feasible lead candidate is a challenging scientific mission as it requires expertise, experience, and huge investment. Natural products and their derivatives having structural diversity are renowned source of therapeutic agents since many years. Tyrosol (a natural phenylethanoid) has been extracted from olive oil, and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FT-NMR, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The conformational analysis for tyrosol geometry was performed by Gaussian 09 in terms of density functional theory. Validation of bond lengths and bond angles obtained experimentally as well as theoretically were performed with the help of curve fitting analysis, and values of correlation coefficient (R) obtained as 0.988 and 0.984, respectively. The charge transfer within the tyrosol molecule was confirmed by analysis of HOMO→LUMO molecular orbitals. In molecular docking with COX-2 (PDB ID: 5F1A), tyrosol was found to possess satisfactory binding affinity as compared to other NSAIDs (Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen) and a COX-2 selective drug (Celecoxib). ADMET prediction, drug-likeness and bioactivity score altogether confirm the lead/drug like potential of tyrosol. Further investigation of simulation quality plot, RMSD and RMSF plots, ligands behavior plot as well as post simulation analysis manifest the consistency of 5F1A-tyrosol complex throughout the 20 ns molecular simulation process that signifies its compactness and stability within the receptor pocket.
PROcket, an Efficient Algorithm to Predict Protein Ligand Binding Site
Semwal R., Aier I., Varadwaj P.K., Antsiperov S. (2019) PROcket, an Efficient Algorithm to Predict Protein Ligand Binding Site. In: Rojas I., Valenzuela O., Rojas F., Ortuño F. (eds) Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. IWBBIO 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11465. Springer, Cham
Abstract: To carry out functional annotation of proteins, the most crucial step is to identify the ligand binding site (LBS) information. Although several algorithms have been reported to identify the LBS, most have limited accuracy and efficiency while considering the number and type of geometrical and physio-chemical features used for such predictions. In this proposed work, a fast and accurate algorithm “PROcket” has been implemented and discussed. The algorithm uses grid-based approach to cluster the local residue neighbors that are present on the solvent accessible surface of proteins. Further with inclusion of selected physio-chemical properties and phylogenetically conserved residues, the algorithm enables accurate detection of the LBS. A comparative study with well-known tools; LIGSITE, LIGSITECS, PASS and CASTptool was performed to analyze the performance of our tool. A set of 48 ligand-bound protein structures from different families were used to compare the performance of the tools. The PROcket algorithm outperformed the existing methods in terms of quality and processing speed with 91% accuracy while considering top 3 rank pockets and 98% accuracy considering top 5 rank pockets.
Structure-based drug designing and identification of Woodfordia fruticosa inhibitors targeted against heat shock protein (HSP70-1) as suppressor for Imiquimod-induced psoriasis like skin inflammation in mice model
Materials Science and Engineering: CVolume 95, 1 February 2019, Pages 57-71
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) emerged as a therapeutic target and it was observed that inhibition of HSP70-1 plays a pivotal role in the management of psoriasis. In-silico investigation involving techniques like molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis was performed against HSP70-1. Further, anti-psoriatic activity of bioactive immunomodulatory compounds present in ethanolic extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (Wffe) using combination of bioinformatics together with ethnopharmacological approach has been explored in this study. Myricetin (−8.024), Quercetin (−7.368) and Ellagic acid (−7.311) were the top three compounds with minimum energy levels as well as high therapeutic value/ADMET as compared to currently available marketed anti-psoriatic drug Tretinoin (−7.195). ADMET prediction was used to screen ligands for drug-likeness and efficacy. Further, biogenically Woodfordia fruticosa gold nanoparticles (WfAuNPs) were synthesized and characterized by UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV–vis), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Synthesized WfAuNPs observed in the size range of 10–20 nm and were used to develop WfAuNPs-Carbopol®934 ointment gel. Subsequently, the therapeutic efficacy of WfAuNPs-Carbopol® 934 was checked against 5% Imiquimod-induced psoriasis like skin inflammation. WfAuNPs-Carbopol® 934 was found to be exerting better therapeutic effect in reducing the mean DAI score (0.63 ± 0.08), serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-22 and IL-23) levels along with reduced epidermal thickness, parakeratosis and marked decrease in the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Results of the study revealed that the WfAuNPs-Carbopol® 934 could be an effective alternative treatment for psoriasis in near future.
Deciphering genome-wide WRKY gene family of Triticum aestivum L. and their functional role in response to Abiotic stress
Genes & Genomics (2019) Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 79–94
Abstract: WRKY transcription factors (TFs) act in regulating plant growth and development as well as in response to different stress. Some earlier studies done by individual researchers reported different wheat WRKY TFs. Although, the recently released wheat genome has opened an avenue to investigate wheat WRKYs (TaWRKY) TFs. Prime objective of this study to performed genome-wide classifications of TaWRKYs and their functional annotation. The classification of 107 individual identified characterized sequences of TaWRKY (IICS-TaWRKY) and 160 uncharacterized draft sequences of TaWRKY (UDS-TaWRKY), along with their gene structures and motifs analysis was performed. Along with comparative sequence analysis and microarray analysis was performed to mimic out TaWRKYs functions in response to different abiotic stresses, accompanied by in-vitro validation. The comparative phylogenetic analysis and estimation of Ka/Ks ratio with Triticum urartu, illustrate group based clasifications of TaWRKYs and evolutionary divergences. Furthermore, motif-based and protein-DNA interaction analysis of TaWRKYs helps to identify, their putative function in target DNA recognition sites. Subsequently, results of microarray and comparative sequence analysis provides the evidence of TaWRKYs involved in heat and/or drought stress. Further, in-vitro results validates that TaWRKY014, TaWRKY090 are found to participate in response of drought stress, whereas TaWRKY008, TaWRKY122, and WRKY45 are involved in response of heat and drought stress. These findings can be utilized in developing novel heat and drought-tolerant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted breeding and transgenic development.